Research Papers

Mechanical-Magnetic Coupling Analysis of a Novel Large Stroke Penta-Stable Mechanism Possessing Multistability Transforming Capability

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian Zhao

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis
for Industrial Equipment,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: zhaojian0403@163.com

Yongcun Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis
for Industrial Equipment,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: yczhang@dlut.edu.cn

Yu Huang

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis
for Industrial Equipment,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: huagnyu130@aliyun.com

Shutian Liu

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis
for Industrial Equipment,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: stliu@dlut.edu.cn

Guoxi Chen, Renjing Gao

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis
for Industrial Equipment,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China

Yintang Yang

School of Microelectronics,
Xidian University,
Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, China
e-mail: ytyang@xidian.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received July 13, 2013; final manuscript received December 30, 2013; published online April 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Anupam Saxena.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 6(3), 031004 (Apr 03, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JMR-13-1131; doi: 10.1115/1.4026630 History: Received July 13, 2013; Revised December 30, 2013

Considering the nonlinear mechanical-magnetic coupling effects, an accurate mathematical model was established for analyzing large stroke penta-stable mechanism possessing multistability transforming capability, with which the mechanism can be switched from pentastability to quadristability. The multistability with any number of stable states can be achieved by integrating spatially arranged magnets and large deformation beams as the fundamental energy storage elements to maintain stable states. By theoretically analyzing the influence of the large mechanical deformation on the magnetic field distribution and system energy, the nonlinear force–displacement characteristics of the multistable mechanism were obtained numerically, which were in good agreement with those obtained by experiments and finite element simulation. Then, an energy-based design criterion for magnetic-mechanical multistable mechanisms was proposed according to the stability theory and energy variation principle. In addition, the multistable transformability was theoretically analyzed, which can transform the proposed mechanism from penta-stability to quadristability by only changing the magnetization direction of moving magnets without varying the structure parameters.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Michaelis, S., Timme, H. J., Wycisk, M., and Binder, J., 2000, “Additive Electroplating Technology as a Post-CMOS Process for the Production of MEMS Acceleration-Threshold Switches for Transportation Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 10(2), pp. 120–123. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Jia, J. Y., and Wang, H. X., 2007, “A Novel Threshold Accelerometer With Post-Buckling Structures for Airbag Restraint System,” IEEE Sens. J., 7(8), pp. 1102–1109. [CrossRef]
Go, J. S., Cho, Y. H., Kwak, B. M., and Park, K., 1996, “Snapping Microswitches With Adjustable Acceleration Threshold,” Sens. Actuators A, 54(1–3), pp. 579–583. [CrossRef]
Selvakumar, A., Yazdi, N., and Najafi, K., 1996, “Low Power, Wide Range Threshold Acceleration Sensing System,” Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, San Diego, CA, pp. 186–191.
Receveur, R. A. M., Marxer, C., Duport, F., Woering, R., Larik, V., and Rooij, N. F., 2004, “Laterally Moving Bi-Stable MEMS DC-Switch for Biomedical Applications,” Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference, MEMS, Maastricht, Netherlands, pp. 854–856.
Freudenreich, M., Mescheder, U., and Somogyi, G., 2004, “Simulation and Realization of a Novel Micromechanical Bi-Stable Switch,” Sens. Actuators A, 114(2), pp. 451–459. [CrossRef]
Wycisk, M., Binder, J., Michaelis, S., and Timmer, H.-J., 1999, “New Sensor On-Chip Technology for Micromechanical Acceleration-Threshold Switches,” Proc. SPIE, 3891, pp. 112–120. [CrossRef]
Michaelis, S., Timmer, H.-J., Wycisk, M., and Binder, J., 2000, “Acceleration Threshold Switches From Additive Electroplating MEMS Process,” Sens. Actuators A, 85(1), pp. 418–423. [CrossRef]
Hoffmann, M., Kopka, P., and Voges, E., 1999, “All-Silicon Bistable Micromechanical Fiber Switch Based on Advanced Bulk Micromachining,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 5(1), pp. 46–51. [CrossRef]
Kruglick, E. J., and Pister, S. J., 1998, “Bistable MEMS Relays and Contact Characterization,” Proceedings of IEEE Solid-State Sensor Actuator Workshop, pp. 333–337.
Masters, N. D., and Howell, L. L., 2003, “A Self-Retracting Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 12(3), pp. 273–280. [CrossRef]
Pirrera, A., Avitabile, D., and Weaver, P. M., 2012, “On the Thermally Induced Bistability of Composite Cylindrical Shells for Morphing Structures,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 49(5), pp. 685–700. [CrossRef]
Schultz, M. R., 2005, “A New Concept for Active Bistable Twisting Structures,” Proc. SPIE, 5764, pp. 241–252. [CrossRef]
Howell, L. L., 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, Wiley, New York.
Wu, C. C., Lin, M. J., and Chen, R., 2012, “Bistable Criterion for Mechanically Bistable Mechanism,” 2012 IEEE 25th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), Paris, France, pp. 396–399.
Saif, M. T. A., 2000, “On a Tunable Bistable MEMS-Theory and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 9(2), pp. 157–170. [CrossRef]
Buchaillot, L., Millet, O., Quévy, E., and Collard, D., 2007, “Post-Buckling Dynamic Behavior of Self-Assembled 3D Microstructures,” Microsyst. Technol., 14(1), pp. 69–78. [CrossRef]
Diaconu, C. G., and Weaver, P. M., 2006, “Postbuckling of Long Unsymmetrically Laminated Composite Plates Under Axial Compression,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 43(22–23), pp. 6978–6997. [CrossRef]
Mattioni, F., Weaver, P. M., Potter, K. D., and Friswell, M. I., 2008, “Analysis of Thermally Induced Multistable Composites,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 45(2), pp. 657–675. [CrossRef]
Mattioni, F., Weaver, P. M., and Friswell, M. I., 2009, “Multistable Composite Plates With Piecewise Variation of Lay-Up in the Planform,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 46(1), pp. 151–164. [CrossRef]
Santer, M., and Pellegrino, S., 2008, “Compliant Multistable Structural Elements,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 45(24), pp. 6190–6204. [CrossRef]
Pham, H. T., and Wang, D.-A., 2011, “A Quadristable Compliant Mechanism With a Bistable Structure Embedded in a Surrounding Beam Structure,” Sens. Actuators A, 167(2), pp. 438–448. [CrossRef]
Han, J. S., Muller, C., Wallrabe, U., and Korvink, J. G., 2007, “Design, Simulation, and Fabrication of a Quadstable Monolithic Mechanism With X- and Y-Directional Bistable Curved Beams,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 129(11), pp. 198–203. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., and Du, Y., 2013, “Double-Young Tristable Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Robot., 5(1), p. 011007. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., Aten, Q., Zirbel, S., Jensen, B. D., and Howell, L. L., 2010, “A Tristable Configuration Employing Orthogonal Compliant Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Robot., 2(1), p. 014501. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., Wilcox, D. L., and Howell, L. L., 2009, “Fully Compliant Double Tensural Tristable Micromechanisms (DTTM),” J. Micromech. Microeng., 19(2), p. 025011. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., Gou, Y. J., and Zhang, A. M., 2011, “Synthesis of Compliant Multistable Mechanisms Through Use of a Single Bistable Mechanism,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(8), p. 081007. [CrossRef]
Chen, G., Zhang, S., and Li, G., 2013, “Multistable Behaviors of Compliant Sarrus Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Robot., 5(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Oberhammer, J., Tang, M., Liu, A. Q., and Stemme, G., 2006, “Mechanically Tri-Stable, True Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) Switches,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 16(11), pp. 2251–2258. [CrossRef]
Limaye, P., Ramu, G., Pamulapati, S., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2012, “A Compliant Mechanism Kit With Flexible Beams and Connectors Along With Analysis and Optimal Synthesis Procedures,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 49, pp. 21–39. [CrossRef]
Pendleton, T. M., and Jensen, B. D., 2007, “Development of a Tristable Compliant Mechanism,” Proceedings of 12TH IFToMM World Congress, A835, 2007.
Ohsaki, M., and Nishiwaki, S., 2005, “Shape Design of Pin-Jointed Multistable Compliant Mechanisms Using Snap-Through Behavior,” Struct. Multidisc. Optim., 30(4), pp. 327–334. [CrossRef]
Mutlu, R., and Alici, G., 2010, “A Multistable Linear Actuation Mechanism Based on Artificial Muscles,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(11) p. 111001. [CrossRef]
King, C., Beaman, J. J., Sreenivasan, S. V., and Campbell, M., 2004, “Multistable Equilibrium System Design Methodology and Demonstration,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 26(6), pp. 1036–1046. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Gao, R., Yang, Y., Huang, Y., and Hu, P., 2013, “A Bidirectional Acceleration Switch Incorporating Magnetic-Fields-Based Tristable Mechanism,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 18(1), pp. 113–120. [CrossRef]
Gerson, Y., Krylov, S., Ilic, B., and Schreiber, D., 2012, “Design Considerations of a Large-Displacement Multistable Micro Actuator With Serially Connected Bistable Elements,” Finite Elem. Anal. Des., 49(1), pp. 58–69. [CrossRef]
Hafez, M., Lichter, M. D., and Dubowsky, S., 2003, “Optimized Binary Modular Reconfigurable Robotic Devices,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 8(1), pp. 18–25. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Yang, Y., and Wang, H., 2010, “A Novel Magnetic Actuated Bistable Acceleration Switch With Low Contact Resistance,” IEEE Sens. J., 10(4), pp. 869–876. [CrossRef]
Yonnet, J. P., and Hemmerlin, S., 1993, “Analytical Calculation of Permanent Magnet Couplings,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 29, pp. 2932–2934. [CrossRef]
Akoun, G., and Yonnet, J., 1984, “3D Analytical Calculation of the Forces Exerted Between Two Cuboidal Magnets,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 20, pp. 1962–1964. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Simplified model of the parallel-guided mechanism formed by two beams

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Influence of the horizontal displacement Δx on the magnetic force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Penta-stable mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The arrangement of the four magnets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The mechanics of the quadristable mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The penta-stable mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

FEM of the four magnets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Magnetic force considering the axial contraction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison between the penta-stable and quadristable mechanisms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Experiment setup for measuring the penta-stable reaction force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison between analytical model and experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The mechanics of the penta-stable mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Total energy of the penta-stable mechanism




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In