Research Papers

Spring Parameters Design for the New Hydraulic Actuated Quadruped Robot

[+] Author and Article Information
Xianbao Chen

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xianbao@sjtu.edu.cn

Feng Gao

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: fengg@sjtu.edu.cn

Chenkun Qi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: chenkqi@sjtu.edu.cn

Xinghua Tian

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xhtian@sjtu.edu.cn

Jiaqi Zhang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhangjiaqiok@gmail.com

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received May 13, 2013; final manuscript received September 29, 2013; published online January 7, 2014. Assoc. Editor: J.M. Selig.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 6(2), 021003 (Jan 07, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: JMR-13-1093; doi: 10.1115/1.4025754 History: Received May 13, 2013; Revised September 29, 2013

More and more state-of-the-art robots have employed hydraulic actuating systems. It has a high power-to-weight ratio. Robots with these actuators can bear more payloads and achieve highly dynamic performance. However, the energy consumption is also very high and the system is very complicated comparing to the electronic motor actuated robot. A lot of research has been done to save the energy. Among which the application of springs is one of the most commonly used methods. This paper presents another use of the spring to save the energy by reducing the hydraulic system pressure of a newly built robot called the “Baby Elephant.” The configuration of the spring is designed according to the leg mechanism. The spring gives an assist force in the stance phase of the leg and exerts a passive payload in the swing phase. The maximum cylinder force is then reduced so as to bring down the pump pressure. The energy to be saved depends on how much the hydraulic pressure can be reduced. In this paper, the Baby Elephant is briefly introduced, the design of the springs on saving the energy are described. Simulations and experiments are carried out to confirm the effect.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Raibert, M., Blankespoor, K., Nelson, G., and Playter, R., 2008, “Bigdog, the Rough–Terrain Quadruped Robot,” Proceedings of the 17th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control Seoul, Korea, July 6–11, 2008, pp. 10823–10825.
Waldron, K. J., Vohnout, V. J., Pery, A., and Mcghee, R. B., 1984, “Configuration Design of the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 3(2), pp. 37–48. [CrossRef]
Hodoshima, R., Fukuda, Y., Hirose, S., Okamoto, T., and Mori, J., 2004, “Development of Titan Xi: A Quadruped Walking Robot to Work on Slopes,” Vol. 1, pp. 792–797.
Koepl, D., Kemper, K., and Hurst, J., 2010, “Force Control for Spring-Mass Walking and Running,” Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2004. (IROS 2004). Proceedings. 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on (Volume:1) pp. 639–644. [CrossRef]
Li, Y., Li, B., Ruan, J., and Rong, X., 2011, “Research of Mammal Bionic Quadruped Robots: A Review,” pp. 166–171.
Mattila, J., and Virvalo, T., 2000, “Energy-Efficient Motion Control of a Hydraulic Manipulator,” 3, Robotics and Automation, 2000, Proceedings. ICRA '00. IEEE International Conference on , Volume 3 pp. 3000–3006. [CrossRef]
Yao, S. L. B., 2002, “Energy-Saving Control of Single-Rod Hydraulic Cylinders with Programmable Valves and Improved Working Mode Selection.”
Mcgeer, T., 1990, “Passive Dynamic Walking,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 9(2), pp. 62–82. [CrossRef]
Anderson, S., Wisse, M., Atkeson, C., Hodgins, J., Zeglin, G., and Moyer, B., 2005, “Powered Bipeds Based on Passive Dynamic Principles,” pp. 110–116.
De Santos, P. G., Garcia, E., Ponticelli, R., and Armada, M., 2009, “Minimizing Energy Consumption in Hexapod Robots,” Adv. Rob.tics, 23(6), pp. 681–704. [CrossRef]
Kim, T.-J., So, B., Kwon, O., and Park, S., 2010, “The Energy Minimization Algorithm Using Foot Rotation for Hydraulic Actuated Quadruped Walking Robot with Redundancy,” pp. 1–6.
Yang, Y., Semini, C., Tsagarakis, N. G., Guglielmino, E., and Caldwell, D. G., 2009, “Leg Mechanisms for Hydraulically Actuated Robots,” pp. 4669–4675.
Xin, X., and Liu, Y., 2013, “A Set-Point Control for a Two-Link Underactuated Robot With a Flexible Elbow Joint,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas. Control, 135(5), p. 051016. [CrossRef]
Alexander, R. M., 1991, “Energy-Saving Mechanisms in Walking and Running,” J. Exp. Biol., 160(1), pp. 55–69. [PubMed]
Alexander, R. M., 1990, “Three Uses for Springs in Legged Locomotion,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 9(2), pp. 53–61. [CrossRef]
Curran, S., Knox, B. T., Schmiedeler, J. P., and Orin, D. E., 2009, “Design of Series-Elastic Actuators for Dynamic Robots With Articulated Legs.”
Galloway, K. C., Clark, J. E., and Koditschek, D. E., 2013, “Variable Stiffness Legs for Robust, Efficient, and Stable Dynamic Running.”
Dai, J. S., Caldwell, D. G., and Seneviratne, L., 2013, “Stiffness Design for a Spatial Three Degrees of Freedom Serial Compliant Manipulator Based on Impact Configuration Decomposition,” Trans. ASME J. Mech. Rob., 5(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Raibert, M. H., and Hodgins, J. K., 1991, “Animation of Dynamic Legged Locomotion,” Vol. 25, pp. 349–358.
Lee, D. V., and Biewener, A. A., 2011, “Bigdog-Inspired Studies in the Locomotion of Goats and Dogs,” Integr. Comp. Biol., 51(1), pp. 190–202. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bloss, R., 2012, “Robot Walks on All Four Legs and Carries a Heavy Load,” Ind. Rob: Int. J., 39(5), pp. 524.
Semini, C., Tsagarakis, N. G., Guglielmino, E., Focchi, M., Cannella, F., and Caldwell, D. G., 2011, “Design of Hyq–a Hydraulically and Electrically Actuated Quadruped Robot,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part I: J. Syst. Control Eng., 225(6), pp. 831–849. [CrossRef]
Hildebrand, M., and Hurley, J. P., 1985, “Energy of the Oscillating Legs of a Fast-Moving Cheetah, Pronghorn, Jackrabbit, and Elephant,” J. Morphol., 184(1), pp. 23–31. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pontzer, H., 2005, “A New Model Predicting Locomotor Cost from Limb Length Via Force Production,” J. Exp. Biol., 208(8), pp. 1513–1524. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
RobertBrown, W., and GalipUlsoy, A., 2013, “A Maneuver Based Design of a Passive-Assist Device for Augmenting Active Joints,”ASME J. Mech. Rob., 5(3), p. 031003. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Walking over uneven terrains

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The hydraulic actuator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sensors and actuators on the robot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Workspace of the foot tip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mechanical structure of the leg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Spring configuration models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Spring system of the leg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Foot tip trajectory of the mark time marching

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Cylinder force surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Cylinder forces of different stance height

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Simulation of mark time marching

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The contact forces of the foot tips with the ground

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Cylinder forces in the simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Springs fixed on the leg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

XPM6 Miniature pressure sensor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Cylinder forces in the experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Battery output power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Endurance experiment




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In