Research Papers

Lamina Emergent Mechanisms and Their Basic Elements

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph O. Jacobsen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602jjacobsen@byu.net

Brian G. Winder

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602bwinder@byu.net

Larry L. Howell1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602lhowell@byu.edu

Spencer P. Magleby

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602magleby@byu.edu


Corresponding author.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 2(1), 011003 (Nov 12, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000523 History: Received December 19, 2008; Revised July 07, 2009; Published November 12, 2009

Lamina emergent mechanisms (LEMs) are fabricated from planar materials (lamina) and have motion that emerges out of the fabrication plane. LEMs provide an opportunity to create compact, cost-effective devices that are capable of accomplishing sophisticated mechanical tasks. They offer the advantages of planar fabrication, a flat initial state (compactness), and monolithic composition (which provides the advantages associated with compliant mechanisms). These advantages come with the tradeoff of challenging design issues. LEM challenges include large, nonlinear deflections, singularities due to two possible motion configurations as they leave their planar state, and coupling of material properties and geometry in predicting mechanism behavior. This paper defines lamina emergent mechanisms, motivates their study, and proposes a fundamental framework on which to base future LEM design. This includes the fundamental components (created by influencing geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions) and basic mechanisms (including planar four-bars and six-bars, and spherical and spatial mechanisms).

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.



Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Examples of LEMs, including (a) a pantograph mechanism (4), and (b) a multiple stage platform (5). In both (a) and (b), the darker sections in the schematics are flexible elements. The pictures on the right are polypropylene models.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of (a) a rigid-link three-degrees-of-freedom microplatform made using multiple layers (6), and (b) a compliant counterpart

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

The relationship of lamina emergent mechanisms (the shaded area) to related mechanisms

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

A cantilever beam used to illustrate properties influencing flexibility

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Approaches for modifying the flexibility via geometry including (a) modifying width, (b) thickness, and (c) cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

LEM segment with increased flexibility due to a length increase because of a switchback

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Example of an end condition approaching fixed-pinned behavior

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Examples of the effect of loading conditions on flexibility: (a) bending and (b) an example of a torsion hinge

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 9

A CPCRR four-bar LEM with torsional hinges: (a) a plan view of the device cutout and (b) the device as fabricated.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 10

A LEM with motion that resembles a Watt six-bar mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 11

A LEM with motion that resembles a Stephenson six-bar mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 12

A LEM with motion that resembles a Stephenson six-bar mechanism made from a different material (polypropylene) (4)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 13

(a) A spherical joint and a paper mechanism equivalent; (b) a multilayer paper mechanism using the new spherical joint to create a spatial revolute-spherical-spherical-revolute (RSSR) mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 15

A lamina emergent spherical slider-crank mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 14

(a) A plan-view schematic of a LEM spherical mechanism, and (b) the device in a deflected position




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In