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Research Papers

Lamina Emergent Mechanisms and Their Basic Elements

[+] Author and Article Information
Joseph O. Jacobsen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602jjacobsen@byu.net

Brian G. Winder

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602bwinder@byu.net

Larry L. Howell1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602lhowell@byu.edu

Spencer P. Magleby

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602magleby@byu.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 2(1), 011003 (Nov 12, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000523 History: Received December 19, 2008; Revised July 07, 2009; Published November 12, 2009

Lamina emergent mechanisms (LEMs) are fabricated from planar materials (lamina) and have motion that emerges out of the fabrication plane. LEMs provide an opportunity to create compact, cost-effective devices that are capable of accomplishing sophisticated mechanical tasks. They offer the advantages of planar fabrication, a flat initial state (compactness), and monolithic composition (which provides the advantages associated with compliant mechanisms). These advantages come with the tradeoff of challenging design issues. LEM challenges include large, nonlinear deflections, singularities due to two possible motion configurations as they leave their planar state, and coupling of material properties and geometry in predicting mechanism behavior. This paper defines lamina emergent mechanisms, motivates their study, and proposes a fundamental framework on which to base future LEM design. This includes the fundamental components (created by influencing geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions) and basic mechanisms (including planar four-bars and six-bars, and spherical and spatial mechanisms).

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Examples of LEMs, including (a) a pantograph mechanism (4), and (b) a multiple stage platform (5). In both (a) and (b), the darker sections in the schematics are flexible elements. The pictures on the right are polypropylene models.

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Figure 2

Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of (a) a rigid-link three-degrees-of-freedom microplatform made using multiple layers (6), and (b) a compliant counterpart

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Figure 3

The relationship of lamina emergent mechanisms (the shaded area) to related mechanisms

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Figure 4

A cantilever beam used to illustrate properties influencing flexibility

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Figure 5

Approaches for modifying the flexibility via geometry including (a) modifying width, (b) thickness, and (c) cross section

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Figure 6

LEM segment with increased flexibility due to a length increase because of a switchback

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Figure 7

Example of an end condition approaching fixed-pinned behavior

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Figure 8

Examples of the effect of loading conditions on flexibility: (a) bending and (b) an example of a torsion hinge

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Figure 9

A CPCRR four-bar LEM with torsional hinges: (a) a plan view of the device cutout and (b) the device as fabricated.

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Figure 10

A LEM with motion that resembles a Watt six-bar mechanism

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Figure 11

A LEM with motion that resembles a Stephenson six-bar mechanism

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Figure 12

A LEM with motion that resembles a Stephenson six-bar mechanism made from a different material (polypropylene) (4)

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Figure 13

(a) A spherical joint and a paper mechanism equivalent; (b) a multilayer paper mechanism using the new spherical joint to create a spatial revolute-spherical-spherical-revolute (RSSR) mechanism

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Figure 15

A lamina emergent spherical slider-crank mechanism

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Figure 14

(a) A plan-view schematic of a LEM spherical mechanism, and (b) the device in a deflected position

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