0
Research Papers

Passive Discrete Variable Stiffness Joint (pDVSJ-II): Modeling, Design, Characterization, and Testing Toward Passive Haptic Interface

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammad I. Awad

Mem. ASME
Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: mohammad.awad@ku.ac.ae

Irfan Hussain

Mem. ASME
Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: irfan.hussain@ku.ac.ae

Dongming Gan

Mem. ASME
Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: dongming.gan@ku.ac.ae

Ali Az-zu'bi

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: ali.azzubi@ku.ac.ae

Cesare Stefanini

Mem. ASME
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: cesare.stefanini@ku.ac.ae

Kinda Khalaf

Mem. ASME
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: kinda.khalaf@ku.ac.ae

Yahya Zweiri

Mem. ASME
Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates;
Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing,
Kingston University London,
London SW15 3DW, UK
e-mail: y.zweiri@kingston.ac.uk

Tarek Taha

Mem. ASME
Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: tarek.taha@ku.ac.ae

Jorge Dias

Mem. ASME
Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates;
Systems and Robotics and the Faculty of Science
and Technology,
University of Coimbra,
Coimbra 3004-531, Portugal
e-mail: jorge.dias@ku.ac.ae

Lakmal Seneviratne

Khalifa University Center for
Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS),
Khalifa University of Science and Technology,
Abu Dhabi Campus,
P.O. Box 127788,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: lakmal.seneviratne@ku.ac.ae

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received May 22, 2018; final manuscript received September 27, 2018; published online November 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Veronica J. Santos.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 11(1), 011005 (Nov 12, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: JMR-18-1148; doi: 10.1115/1.4041640 History: Received May 22, 2018; Revised September 27, 2018

In this paper, the modeling, design, and characterization of the passive discrete variable stiffness joint (pDVSJ-II) are presented. The pDVSJ-II is an extended proof of concept of a passive revolute joint with discretely controlled variable stiffness. The key motivation behind this design is the need for instantaneous switching between stiffness levels when applied for remote exploration applications where stiffness mapping is required, in addition for the need of low-energy consumption. The novelty of this work lies in the topology used to alter the stiffness of the variable stiffness joint. Altering the stiffness is achieved by selecting the effective length of an elastic cord with hook's springs. This is realized through the novel design of the cord grounding unit (CGU), which is responsible for creating a new grounding point, thus changing the effective length and the involved springs. The main features of CGU are the fast response and the low-energy consumption. Two different levels of stiffness (low, high) can be discretely selected besides the zero stiffness. The proposed physical-based model matched the experimental results of the pDVSJ-II in terms of discrete stiffness variation curves, and the stiffness dependency on the behavior of the springs. Two psychophysiological tests were conducted to validate the capabilities to simulate different levels of stiffness on human user and the results showed high relative accuracy. Furthermore, a qualitative experiment in a teleoperation scenario is presented as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed haptic interface.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hayward, V. , Astley, O. , Cruz-Hernandez, M. , Grant, D. , and Robles-De-La-Torre, G. , 2004, “ Haptic Interfaces and Devices,” Sensor Rev., 24(1), pp. 16–29. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. , Sukhatme, G. S. , Kim, G. J. , and Park, C. M. , 2002, “ Haptic Control of a Mobile Robot: A User Study,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 30–Oct. 4, pp. 2867–2874.
Cho, S. K. , Jin, H. Z. , Lee, J. M. , and Yao, B. , 2010, “ Teleoperation of a Mobile Robot Using a Force-Reflection Joystick With Sensing Mechanism of Rotating Magnetic Field,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 15(1), pp. 17–26. [CrossRef]
Crespo, M. , and Reinkensmeyer, D. J. , 2008, “ Haptic Guidance Can Enhance Motor Learning of a Steering Task,” J. Motor Behav., 40(6), pp. 545–556. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. , and Agrawal, S. K. , 2013, “ Assisting Versus Repelling Force-Feedback for Learning of a Line Following Task in a Wheelchair,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., 21(6), pp. 959–968. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Coles, T. R. , Meglan, D. , and John, N. W. , 2011, “ The Role of Haptics in Medical Training Simulators: A Survey of the State of the Art,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, 4(1), pp. 51–66. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ferre, M. , Galiana, I. , Wirz, R. , and Tuttle, N. , 2011, “ Haptic Device for Capturing and Simulating Hand Manipulation Rehabilitation,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 16(5), pp. 808–815. [CrossRef]
Gosselin, F. , Bidard, C. , and Brisset, J. , 2005, “ Design of a High Fidelity Haptic Device for Telesurgery,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 205–210.
Wang, X. , and Liu, P. X. , 2006, “ Improvement of Haptic Feedback Fidelity for Telesurgical Applications,” Electron. Lett., 42(6), pp. 327–329. [CrossRef]
Ni, Z. , Bolopion, A. , Agnus, J. , Benosman, R. , and Regnier, S. , 2012, “ Asynchronous Event-Based Visual Shape Tracking for Stable Haptic Feedback in Microrobotics,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 28(5), pp. 1081–1089. [CrossRef]
Bolopion, A. , and Régnier, S. , 2013, “ A Review of Haptic Feedback Teleoperation Systems for Micromanipulation and Microassembly,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng., 10(3), pp. 496–502. [CrossRef]
Salisbury, J. K. , and Srinivasan, M. , 1996, “ The Proceedings of the First Phantom Users Group Workshop,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, Report No. AITR-1596. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/6769
Gupta, A. , and O'Malley, M. K. , 2006, “ Design of a Haptic Arm Exoskeleton for Training and Rehabilitation,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 11(3), pp. 280–289. [CrossRef]
Turner, M. , Gomez, D. , Tremblay, M. , and Cutkosky, M. R. , 1998, “ Preliminary Tests of an Arm-Grounded Haptic Feedback Device in Telemanipulation,” Symposium, Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Anaheim, CA, pp. 145–150. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.329.1781&rep=rep1&type=pdf
MA, Z. , and Ben-Tzvi, P. , 2015, “ RML Glove—An Exoskeleton Glove Mechanism With Haptics Feedback,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 20(2), pp. 641–652. [CrossRef]
Swanson, D. , 2003, “ Implementation of Arbitrary Path Constraints Using Dissipative Passive Haptic Displays,” Ph.D. thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2e1e/76e5cb2c5d339c43e3dc7a18ec59bd014463.pdf
Rossa, C. , Lozada, J. , and Micaelli, A. , 2014, “ Design and Control of a Dual Unidirectional Brake Hybrid Actuation System for Haptic Devices,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, 7(4), pp. 442–453. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Nam, Y. J. , and Park, M. K. , 2007, “ A Hybrid Haptic Device for Wide-Ranged Force Reflection and Improved Transparency,” International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, Seoul, South Korea, Oct. 17–20, pp. 1015–1020.
Book, W. , Charles, R. , Davis, H. T. , and Gomes, M. , 1996, “ The Concept and Implementation of a Passive Trajectory Enhancing Robot,” ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division, Atlanta, GA, pp. 633–638. http://hdl.handle.net/1853/39068
Sakaguchi, M. , and Furusho, J. , 1999, “ Development of 2 DOF Force Display System Using ER Actuators,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Atlanta, GA, Sept. 19–23, pp. 707–712.
Tenzer, Y. , Davies, B. L. , and Rodriguez y Baena, F. , 2010, “ Programmable Differential Brake for Passive Haptics,” Rob. Auton. Syst., 58(3), pp. 249–255. [CrossRef]
Gosline, A. H. C. , and Hayward, V. , 2008, “ Eddy Current Brakes for Haptic Interfaces: Design, Identification, and Control,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 13(6), pp. 669–677. [CrossRef]
Achibet, M. , Girard, A. , Talvas, A. , Marchal, M. , and Lécuyer, A. , 2015, “ Elastic-Arm: Human-Scale Passive Haptic Feedback for Augmenting Interaction and Perception in Virtual Environments,” IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), Arles, France, Mar. 23–27, pp. 63–68.
Bianchi, M. , Scilingo, E. P. , Serio, A. , and Bicchi, A. , 2009, “ A New Softness Display Based on bi-Elastic Fabric,” World Haptics 2009 - Third Joint EuroHaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Salt Lake City, UT, Mar. 18–20, pp. 382–383.
Song, A. , Morris, D. , Colgate, J. E. , and Peshkin, M. A. , 2005, “ Real Time Stiffness Display Interface Device for Perception of Virtual Soft Object,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Edmonton, AB, Aug. 2–6, pp. 139–143.
Basafa, E. , Sheikholeslami, M. , Mirbagheri, A. , Farahmand, F. , and Vossoughi, G. R. , 2009, “ Design and Implementation of Series Elastic Actuators for a Haptic Laparoscopic Device,” Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Minneapolis, MN, Sept. 2–6, pp. 6054–6057.
Gan, D. , Tsagarakis, N. G. , Dai, J. S. , Caldwell, D. G. , and Seneviratne, L. , 2012, “ Stiffness Design for a Spatial Three Degrees of Freedom Serial Compliant Manipulator Based on Impact Configuration Decomposition,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 5(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Awad, M. I. , Gan, D. , Cempini, M. , Cortese, M. , Vitiello, N. , Dias, J. , Dario, P. , and Seneviratne, L. , 2016, “ Modeling, Design & Characterization of a Novel Passive Variable Stiffness Joint (pVSJ),” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Daejeon, South Korea, Oct. 9–14, pp. 323–329.
Tonietti, G. , Schiavi, R. , and Bicchi, A. , 2005, “ Design and Control of a Variable Stiffness Actuator for Safe and Fast Physical Human/Robot Interaction,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 526–531.
Diller, S. , Majidi, C. , and Collins, S. H. , 2016, “ A Lightweight, Low-Power Electroadhesive Clutch and Spring for Exoskeleton Actuation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Stockholm, Sweden, May 16–21, pp. 682–689.
Hurst, J. W. , Chestnutt, J. E. , and Rizzi, A. A. , 2010, “ The Actuator With Mechanically Adjustable Series Compliance,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 26(4), pp. 597–606. [CrossRef]
Zhou, X. , Jun, S. , and Krovi, V. , 2015, “ A Cable Based Active Variable Stiffness Module With Decoupled Tension,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 7(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
Jafari, A. , Tsagarakis, N. G. , Vanderborght, B. , and Caldwell, D. G. , 2010, “ A Novel Actuator With Adjustable Stiffness (AWAS),” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 18–22, pp. 4201–4206.
Jafari, A. , Tsagarakis, N. G. , and Caldwell, D. G. , 2011, “ AwAS-II: A New Actuator With Adjustable Stiffness Based on the Novel Principle of Adaptable Pivot Point and Variable Lever Ratio,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Shanghai, China, May 9–13, pp. 4638–4643.
Tsagarakis, N. G. , Sardellitti, I. , and Caldwell, D. G. , 2011, “ A New Variable Stiffness Actuator (CompAct-VSA): Design and Modelling,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 25–30, pp. 378–383.
Herzig, N. , Maiolino, P. , Iida, F. , and Nanayakkara, T. , 2018, “ A Variable Stiffness Robotic Probe for Soft Tissue Palpation,” IEEE Rob. Autom. Lett., 3(2), pp. 1168–1175. [CrossRef]
Awad, M. I. , Gan, D. , Az-zu'bi, A. , Thattamparambil, J. , Stefanini, C. , Dias, J. , and Seneviratne, L. , 2016, “ Novel Passive Discrete Variable Stiffness Joint (pDVSJ): Modeling, Design, and Characterization,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Qingdao, China, Dec. 3–7, pp. 1808–1813.
Dzidek, B. M. , Adams, M. J. , Andrews, J. W. , Zhang, Z. , and Johnson, S. A. , 2017, “ Contact Mechanics of the Human Finger Pad Under Compressive Loads,” J. R. Soc. Interface, 14(127), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef]
Treloar, L. , and Ronald, G. , 2005, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Love, A. E. , 1920, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.
Bianchi, M. , Battaglia, E. , Poggiani, M. , Ciotti, S. , and Bicchi, A. , 2016, “ A Wearable Fabric-Based Display for Haptic Multi-Cue Delivery,” IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS), Philadelphia, PA, Apr. 8–11, pp. 277–283.
Koçak, U. , Palmerius, K. L. , Forsell, C. , Ynnerman, A. , and Cooper, M. , 2011, “ Analysis of the JND of Stiffness in Three Modes of Comparison,” International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, Kusatsu, Japan, Aug. 25–26, pp. 22–31.
Amiguet, J. , Sessa, S. , Bleuler, H. , and Takanishi, A. , 2015, “ Design of a Wearable Device for Low Frequency Haptic Stimulation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Zhuhai, China, Dec. 6–9, pp. 297–302.
Konstantinova, J. , Cotugno, G. , Dasgupta, P. , Althoefer, K. , and Nanayakkara, T. , 2018, “ Correction: Palpation Force Modulation Strategies to Identify Hard Regions in Soft Tissue Organs,” PloS One, 13(1), pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
Goodrich, M. A. , and Schultz, A. C. , 2008, “ Human–Robot Interaction: A Survey,” Found. Trends® Human–Comput. Interact., 1(3), pp. 203–275. [CrossRef]
Quigley, M. , Conley, K. , Gerkey, B. P. , Faust, J. , Foote, T. , Leibs, J. , Wheeler, R. , and Ng, A. Y. , 2009, “ ROS: An Open-Source Robot Operating System,” ICRA Workshop Open Source Software, pp. 1–5.
Mathijssen, G. , Lefeber, D. , and Vanderborght, B. , 2015, “ Variable Recruitment of Parallel Elastic Elements: Series–Parallel Elastic Actuators (SPEA) With Dephased Mutilated Gears,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 20(2), pp. 594–602. [CrossRef]
Mathijssen, G. , Furnemont, R. , Beckers, S. , Verstranten, T. , Lefeber, D. , and Vanderborght, B. , 2015, “ Cylindrical Cam Mechanism for Unlimited Subsequent Spring Recruitment in Series-Parallel Elastic Actuators,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Seattle, WA, May 25–30, pp. 857–862.
Islam, S. , Gan, D. , Ashour, R. , Dario, P. , Dias, J. , and Seneviratne, L. , 2017, “ Haptics and Virtual Reality Based Bilateral Telemanipulation of Miniature Aerial Vehicle Over Open Communication Network,” 18th International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR), Hong Kong, July 10–12, pp. 334–339.
Wannasuphoprasit, W. , Gillespie, R. B. , Colgate, J. E. , and Peshkin, M. A. , 1997, “ Cobot Control,” International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Albuquerque, NM, Apr. 20–25, pp. 3571–3576.
Karadogan, E. , Williams , R. L., II , Howell, J. N. , and Conaster, R. R., Jr. , 2010, “ A Stiffness Discrimination Experiment Including Analysis of Palpation Forces and Velocities,” Simul. Healthcare, 5(5), pp. 279–288. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

pDVSJ mounted on an elbow exoskeleton [37]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Interaction with elastic remote/virtual component (a) description, (b) the interaction when pressing on the elastic component, and (c) the interaction when releasing the elastic material

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Basic concepts of (a) the pDVSJ and (b) the pDVSJ-II are used to separate the multiple sentences

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Functionality of the pDVSJ-II

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Parameters taken in consideration for the cam-cleat profile design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

CGU gap versus cam-cleat angular position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Cord grounding unit operating stages

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Response time versus cord's axial velocity for different values of γmax

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Tension force versus elongation for tension hook spring

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Tension force versus strain for HS polymer cords

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Model of the pDVSJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The variation in the values of the total stiffness in Eq. (8) versus the activation position. The stiffness values are slightly affected through the span of activation positions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Characterization experiment of pDVSJ-II

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Joint's torque versus deflection: theoretical results (red lines), experimental results (black circles)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The bode plot of the system for both levels of stiffness (high: red, low: blue). The bandwidth for the system in high stiffness and low stiffness are 8.52 Hz, 5.88 Hz, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Stiffness mimic devices with calibrated springs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Participant performing the absolute cognitive task

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

The experimental setup: The Baxter manipulator having the tracking markers at its end effector to register the vertical motion. The haptic interface (pDVSJ-II) has tracking marker at its end effector. The motions of both robot and pDVSJ-II end effector are recorded through Optitrack system. The ATI Delta force sensor is placed under the object to measure the applied force. Arduino Uno along with the 24 V relays is used to activate/deactivate the solenoid to alter the stiffness of the device.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Block diagram of experimental setup. The Optitrack system to record the motion at both master and slave sides i.e., the position of end effector's of robot and pDVSJ-II device and communicate with the computer through ROS. On the slave side, the Baxter robot, ATI Delta along with its NetBox controller are connected with the computer and also use the ROS as communication interface. On the master side, the Arduino UNO is connected with computer through serial communication, which in turn controls the relays to activate/deactivate the solenoids to change the stiffness of pDVSJ-II accordingly.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

The implementation of finite state machine to perform the experimental tasks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

The rotation of our device's (pDVSJ-II) end effector to move the slave robot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Position of the Baxter robot end effector in case of both soft and relatively stiff objects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

The force plots of the soft (blue) and relatively stiff (red)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Suggested application for pDVSJ-II for remote exploration mission specifically for remote elements stiffness rendering

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In