0
Technical Brief

Soft Actuating Sit-to-Stand Trainer Seat PUBLIC ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Fraiszudeen

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
4 Engineering Drive 3,
Engineering Block 4(E4) #04-08,
Singapore 117583
e-mail: bieaf@nus.edu.sg

C. H. Yeow

Department of Biomedical Engineering,
4 Engineering Drive 3,
Engineering Block 4(E4) #04-08,
Singapore 117583
e-mail: rayeow@nus.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received March 30, 2017; final manuscript received September 28, 2018; published online November 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Robert J. Wood.

J. Mechanisms Robotics 11(1), 014501 (Nov 13, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: JMR-17-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4041630 History: Received March 30, 2017; Revised September 28, 2018

In this paper, we propose a novel type of soft robot for sit to stand (STS) training, which is made with soft bellow actuators. Analysis with five healthy human subjects revealed that there is a statistically significant decrease in the peak and mean muscle activation signal from three out of the four groups of lower limb muscle for STS transition, namely, tibialis anterior, hamstrings, and quadriceps. The peak muscle activation decreased most drastically on the quadriceps muscle group (0.726 ± 0.467 to 0.269 ± 0.334). As reduced muscle activation signal correlates to less muscular effort required by the users, the results show the effectiveness of the device in partially supporting the STS transition of the subject, which subsequently serves as an STS trainer device.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>

Posture transferring movements, such as sit to stand (STS) transition, have been the cause of most fall incidents for the elderly [1]. One-fifth of all falls among them lead to serious injuries. Furthermore, the probability of a subsequent fall doubles after their first. This results in institutionalization, impaired functioning, depression which further exacerbates their immune system and muscular atrophy and death [2]. Currently, there are two types of clinical solutions for the rehabilitation of STS transfer [3]. The first is physiotherapy, where caregivers provide training programed for patients. The caregivers provide support and guidance to complete the STS motion, while challenging the patient to provide their own maximal effort. In this way, neuroplasticity is stimulated, and motor learning is regained. The patient is in a supportive community for motivation and assistance for their STS transfer rehabilitation. Hence, this solution aids patients who require constant supervision [4]. However, the patient trains with unnatural transferring movement under the caregiver's assistance. This leads to both internal and external injuries for the patients, Moreover, there is a lack of healthcare, manpower, and financial resources to meet the needs of the growing aging population.

Hence, there is a need for a technological approach, the second clinical solution, to allow more independent training for patients with STS transfer immobility [58]. There are three types of devices that are developed for training STS for patients: passive devices, active devices, and wearable devices. First, passive devices include walker frames, parallel bars, chair arm rests, and high seat chairs [8]. This group of devices reduces the net moment on the lower extremity joints, through the assistance of the upper extremity for STS transfer and reverse. However, this requires a fit upper body for these patients and is not always practical for many environments of STS, as abnormal muscle forces are involved compared to a normal STS [9]. Also, this method has risk of injuring the upper body through continued use of it for STS. Hence, there is a need for devices for which patients use less or no effort from the upper extremities [8,9].

The second type of technology for STS transition training is active devices [1014]. There devices utilize linear actuators and passive principles. An example includes spring-loaded flap seats, like uneasy seat assist, which has ejector lifting mechanism for STS transfer. Analysis of this device revealed easier transfers for 75% of the subjects tested. This is due to reduced external hip and knee flexion moments and vastus lateralis muscle activity. Earlier quadriceps and tibialis anterior muscle activation onsets and durations were found with ejector mechanism use as well [15,16]. However, this device challenges balance, forcing the patient to stand up using abnormal movement mechanics. Hence, patients undergo improper rehabilitation for STS using this device [17].

The third type of technology for STS transfer training is wearable devices, including exoskeletons [1821]. Existing exoskeletons are made with rigid robotics and soft robotics. These former types of lower body suits aid at the hip, knee, and the ankle joints through direct current motor, partial body weight support, and postural torques on the torso [19]. However, they are bulky, heavy and offer difficulty in handling, balancing, and operating [20]. Hence, to overcome those problems, lightweight soft robotic systems (latter) can be used for additional safety, flexibility, and portability [22]. Actuators of this technology can be made with textile or plastics and operated with soft or miniaturized pumps and valves that can be embedded in the device without introducing rigidity [23]. Walsh et al. developed a lightweight wearable robot for human lower limb exoskeleton for STS and gait rehabilitation by using soft pneumatic actuators [24]. However, the device is designed for patients with lower limb paralysis; hence, it is less useful for those with muscle atrophy. Hence, a simpler technology is more needed for patients with STS immobility due to partial muscle atrophy [25].

In this technical brief, we propose a novel type of soft actuating STS trainer seat that is made with soft bellow actuators and addresses the need of patients with partial STS immobility. The following are the design and fabrication of the device, the control strategy, and the analysis of its function with healthy human subjects.

The design of the soft actuating sit-to-stand trainer seat is divided into two main parts: the soft pneumatic seat and the control system.

Soft Pneumatic Seat Design and Fabrication.

First, the soft pneumatic seat is mainly assembled with four soft pneumatic actuators positioned in anterior and posterior arrangement. There are two actuators each placed lengthwise in anterior and posterior. In the anterior, each actuator contains 1 pneumatic bladder (1 bladder actuator). On the other hand, in the posterior, each actuator contains three bladders stacked atop one another to form a bellow actuator (three bladder bellow actuator) (Figs. 1(a) and 1(b)). The soft pneumatic bladder is made of two rectangular polyurethane sheets with dimensions of 20 cm (length) and 15 cm (width). The sheets are heat sealed at all four sides to fabricate one bladder. Eight of these pneumatic bladders are fabricated for the development of the soft pneumatic seat. A leveling cushion, made from polyurethane, is then placed atop the anterior actuators to match its height to the posterior actuators. Both the anterior and posterior actuators are also connected to a series of pneumatic solenoid valves for regulating actuation. A light and rigid top cover is then placed atop the soft pneumatic actuators to act as the elevating platform of the seat. This platform is elevated from the horizon to 45 deg from sitting to semistanding position or declined back to horizon from semistanding to sitting position (Figs. 1(c) and 1(d))

Control System.

The control system of the device automates the elevation of the user (from sit to semistand position) and decline (from semistand to sit) by inflating and deflating pneumatic actuators, respectively (Fig. 2). It also allows user to operate manually the desired angle of elevation. It consists of a controller circuit, comprising a microcontroller, battery source, a pneumatic pump, four pneumatic solenoid valves, latched push buttons, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor. The operation of the device is also made wirelessly by the incorporation of a bluetooth module. Via Bluetooth, the device is connected to smart phone application in a mobile device, which remotely controls and monitors the soft actuating STS trainer seat. All the electronics are placed on the posterior of pneumatic actuators, in the foam box, with the IMU sensor embedded on the elevating platform.

Overall Dimension and Weight of the Soft Actuating Sit To Stand Trainer Seat.

The above components are then encased in a box, with the top cover being the elevating platform, and the control system in a smaller box within the first. The overall dimensions of the device before inflation are 40 cm (length) × 30 cm (width) × 5 cm (height). After inflation, the height increases up to 30 cm to provide an elevation of 45 deg above horizon. The device weights 670 g, without the electronics and 1.2 kg including them.

Operational Work Flow of the Device.

The pneumatic actuators in the device are in an initial deflated state when the user is in the seated position (Fig. 3). Once the patient wants to transit to standing position, he/she will press a button in the device or smart phone application to activate the miniature pneumatic pump, which will initiate the inflation of the posterior pneumatic actuator momentarily. Only the bellow actuators (posterior actuator) are inflated and deflated, respectively. The anterior actuators, on the other hand, are not operated as they are for providing balance and support for the user during these transitions. Over a few seconds, the inflating posterior actuator will elevate the seat from 0 deg to a maximum of 45 deg (semistanding position). The patient then proceeds to upright standing position with their own effort, requiring less muscular torque, than without elevation from device, as their center of gravity is nearer to their base [19]. The pneumatic pump will then cease inflation through elevation angle feedback from the embedded IMU. Once the patient wants to transit from a standing to sitting position, the user will press a button in the device or the smart phone application to switch off the inflation valve, which deflates the posterior actuator momentarily. This reduces the elevation angle of the device to 0 deg.

As higher angle of elevation of the seat provides higher support for the patients during STS transitions, users can progressively control the angle of elevation required, by activating and deactivating the inflation and deflation of the bellow actuators during any time of operation [20]. They can elevate the device to angles lesser than 45 deg for their STS transitions. Hence, the freedom to operate the degree of elevation allows this device to operate as a trainer for STS postural transfers. This leads the design to be significantly helpful for independent retraining of STS function and its reverse for its users.

The device was tested with healthy human subjects for evaluating its capability to partially support users transiting from sitting to semistanding position. This is by comparing differences in electromyography (EMG) signal of 4 major lower limb muscle groups (quadriceps, gastrocnemius, hamstrings, and tibialis anterior) involved in STS transfer with and without the assistance of the device.

The analysis was conducted in The Gait Laboratory in Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore. A motion capture and analysis system (VICON Motion System, Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK), consisting of six infra-red cameras, was used to collect kinematic data from the lower limb motion in the sagittal plane of human subjects. A single AMTI force plate (AMTI, Advanced Mechanical Technology Inc., Watertown, MA) embedded in the floor was used to record vertical ground reaction force underneath the feet during the STS motion. Force and motion data were sampled at 1000 Hz and 100 Hz sampling rate, respectively. The force plates and the motion-capture system were calibrated according to manufacturers' recommendations and then synchronized via MX Ultranet HD using a Gigabit Ethernet connection, prior to the start of landing trials.

Five healthy adult male subjects, with no musculoskeletal and neurological ailments or injury, participated in the analysis (age: 24.6 ± 1.5 years, body mass: 66.2 ± 9.7 kg, and height: 1.70 ± 0.04 m). Anthropometric data such as height, weight, leg length, knee width, and ankle width were acquired from all subjects. Sixteen retro reflective markers (25 mm diameter) were attached to the subject's lower body based on the Plug-in-Gait Marker Set, specifically on the sacrum and bilaterally on the anterior superior iliac spine, lateral thigh, lateral femoral epicondyle, lateral shank, calcaneus, lateral malleolus, and second metatarsal. Surface EMG electrodes (TrignoTM, Wireless EMG System, Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on four main lower body muscle groups of sit to stand transition on the left leg, specifically the quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius. The EMG electrodes were positioned over the palpated muscle bellies. The area underneath the electrodes was properly cleaned and the electrical impedance was checked between each pair of electrodes (under 15 kΩ) to assure optimal EMG recordings. The sampling frequency was set to 1000 Hz.

Motion and EMG data were recorded while the subjects performed STS movement under the condition STS without assistance and with assistance, respectively. For the former experimental condition, subjects sit on the device with their arms crossed to the shoulders and the edge of the buttock on the posterior edge of the device. Their heels tucked in between the front of the chair. Subjects look forward and stand on their own without assistance from the device for five trials. Each trial recording begins when subject is instructed to stand from sitting position and ends when upright standing position is achieved.

For the experimental condition of STS with assistance, subjects sit on the device in the configuration like STS without assistance. During elevation by the device, subjects look forward, keep their torso upright and exert minimal effort by their heels to the ground throughout the elevation. They are then told to lean forward during the start of elevation. Subjects then are elevated to semistanding position by of the device, while exerting minimal muscular force. The subjects stand upright on their effort once they are assisted to semistanding position by the device. Each trial recording begins when elevation of the subject by the device is started and ends when subject stands upright.

Motion data from the marker trajectories were collected in Vicon Workstation 5.1 and were filtered using Vicon's built-in Woltring quintic spline algorithm. EMG signals were processed as follows: demeaning of the raw signal with the zero-phase high-pass filter with cut-off frequency of 10 Hz, band pass filtering (20–300 Hz), notch filtering (49–51 Hz), full-wave rectification, and moving average window filtering (150 ms). The data are then normalized separately for each subject to the maximal voluntary contraction value. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated for each muscle and were used to calculate mean subject EMG value across the whole duration of the observed movement for both STS with and without assistance conditions. Paired T-test is used to analyze significant difference in EMG patterns between the two experimental conditions of each subject.

From the use of the device, there is a statistically significant decrease in the peak and mean muscle activation signal from three out of the four groups of lower limb muscle for sit to stand transition, namely, tibialis anterior, hamstrings, and quadriceps (Fig. 4). The peak muscle activation decreased most drastically on the quadriceps muscle group (0.726 ± 0.467 to 0.269 ± 0.334), as shown in Table 1. However, there is no statistically significant change in the muscle force of gastrocnemius (p > 0.05). This is also observed in other studies, as the gastrocnemius does not play a major role in the initial phases of sit to stand compared to the other 3 muscle groups [9]. Peak and mean muscle activations of each muscle recorded of the mean subject are found in Table 1. Following that, the graphs of normalized mean EMG patterns of the 4 muscle groups without and with assistance are shown in Fig. 5 to further illustrate the trend observed. Compared to the normalized EMG profile of unassisted STS transfer, the EMG profile of assisted STS transfer shows smoother muscle activation signals throughout the motion in the three muscle groups.

The results show the effectiveness of the device in partially supporting the STS transition of the subject, which subsequently serves as an STS trainer device. As reduced muscle activation signal correlates to less muscular effort required by the users, patients with STS mobility difficulties can benefit from the support the device provides. Moreover, the control over the angle of elevation allows patients to operate the level of support the device provides them. This allows them to progressively use the device as a trainer through challenging their own muscular effort needed with the level of supporting force the device provides them.

In this paper, the soft actuating STS trainer seat for independent retraining of users via providing partial support is introduced. Comprising of soft bellow actuators and control system of IMU, pneumatic pumps, and solenoid valves, the device is designed as a smart and light technology for greater operational independence of STS transition. Compared to other STS trainers, the use of soft actuators makes this design more suitable for independent rehabilitation.

In future, the analysis of the soft actuating sits to stand trainer seat can be furthered by a broader investigation of its effectiveness among human subjects with STS mobility challenges. As for the design, a pneumatic pump with capability to control air flow rate will be used, to allow users to control the speed of elevation. In addition, further study of the speed of decline of the elevating platform during deflation when loaded will be conducted. This is significant for redesigning the pump necessary for the device.

Also, different operational modes will be incorporated into the design of the device, instead of training for sit to stand and stand to sit transitions through the elevation of posterior pneumatic actuators, patients will also be assisted with other transitions, postures, and activities with the soft robotic seat, such as for balance training in upright sitting and massage of the buttock region. Finally, the functional capability of the proposed device can also be compared with the current devices for STS transfer to further highlight the merits of the device.

  • National University of Singapore (R397-001-723-733).

Baker, S. P. , and Harvey, A. , 1985, “ Fall Injuries in the Elderly,” Clin. Geriatr. Med., 1, pp. 501–512. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ortman, J. M. , Velkoff, V. A. , and Hogan, H. , 2014, “ An Aging Nation: The Older Population in the United State,” U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, accessed Sept. 14, 2017, https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf
Wim, J. , Hans, B. , and Henk, S. , 2002, “ Determinants of the Sit to Stand Movement: A Review,” Phys. Ther., 82(9), pp. 866–879. https://academic.oup.com/ptj/article/82/9/866/2857650 [PubMed]
Engardt, M. , and Olsson, E. , 1992, “ Body Weight-Bearing While Rising and Sitting down in Patients With Stroke,” Scand. J. Rehabil. Med., 24(2), pp. 67–74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=1604264 [PubMed]
Gross, M. , Stevenson, P. , Charette, S. , Pyka, G. , and Marcus, R. , 1998, “ Effect of Muscle Strength and Movement Speed on the Biomechanics of Rising From a Chair in Healthy Elderly and Young Women,” Gait Posture, 8(3), pp. 175–185. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fleischer, C. , and Hommel, G. , 2008, “ A Human–Exoskeleton Interface Utilizing Electromyography,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 24(4), pp. 872–882. [CrossRef]
[Fattah, A. , Agarwal, S. , Catlin, G. , and Hemnett, J. , 2005, “ Design of Passive Gravity-Balanced Assistive Device for Sit to Stand Tasks,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 128(5), pp. 1128–1140.
Matjačić, Z. , Zadravec, M. , and Oblak, J. , 2015, “ Sit-to-Stand Trainer: An Apparatus for Training Normal-like Sit to Stand Movement,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., 24(6), pp. 639–649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
An, Q. , Ishikawa, Y. , Nakagawa, K. , Kuroda, A. , Oka, H. , and Yamakawa, H. , 2012, “ Evaluation of Wearable Gyroscope and Accelerometer Sensor (PocketIMU2) During Walking and Sit-to-Stand Motions,” 21st IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), Paris, Sept. 9–13, pp. 731–736.
Kamnik, R. , and Bajd, T. , 2004, “ Standing Up Robot: An Assistive Rehabilitative Device for Training and Assessment,” J. Med. Eng. Technol., 28(2), pp. 74–80. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Quintero, H. A. , Farris, R. J. , and Goldfarb, M. , 2011, “ Control and Implementation of a Powered Lower Limb Orthosis to Aid Walking in Paraplegic Individuals,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), Zurich, Switzerland, June 29–July 1, pp. 1–6.
Yamamoto, H. , Kadone, H. , and Suzuki, K. , 2015, “ Wearable Inflatable Robot for Supporting Postural Transitions in Infants Between Sitting and Lying,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Zhuhai, China, Dec. 6–9, pp. 2289–2294.
Jatsun, S. , Savin, S. , and Yatsun, A. , 2016, “ Motion Control Algorithm for a Lower Limb Exoskeleton Based on Iterative LQR and ZMP Method for Trajectory Generation,” Fifth International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots (MESROB), Graz, Austria, July 4–6, pp. 305–317.
Majidi, C. , 2013, “ A Perspective—Current Trends and Prospects of the Future,” Soft Rob., 1(1), pp. 5–11.
Salah, O. , Asker, A. , Ahmed, M. R. , El-Bab, F. , Samy, M. F. , Ramadan, A. A. , Sessa, S. , and Ahmed, A. , 2013, “ Development of Parallel Manipulator Sit to Stand Assistive Device for Elderly People,” IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and Its Social Impacts (ARSO), Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 7–9, pp. 27–32.
Baiden, D. , and Ivlev, O. , 2013, “ Human-Robot-Interaction Control for Orthoses With Pneumatic Soft-Actuators—Concept and Initial Trail,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, (ICORR), Seattle, WA, June 24–26.
Jeyasurya, J. , Loos, M. , Hodgson, A. , and Croft, E. , 2013, “ Comparison of Seat, Waist and Arm Sit-to- Stand Assistance Modality in Elderly,” J. Rehabil. Res. Develop., 50(6), pp. 835–844. [CrossRef]
Rutherford, D. , Hurley, S. , and Hubley-Kozey, C. , 2014, “ Sit-to-Stand Transfer Mechanics in Healthy Adults: A Comprehensive Investigation of a Portable Lifting Seat Device,” Disability Rehabil.: Assistive Technol., 11(2), pp. 158–165. [CrossRef]
Kamnik, R. , Bajd, T. , Williamson, J. , and Murray-Smith, R. , 2005, “ Rehabilitation Robot Cell for Multimodal Standing Up Motion Augmentation,” IEEE International Conference on Robot and Automation (ROBOT 2005), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 2277–2282.
Burnfield, Y. , Shu, J. , Buster, T. , Taylor, A. , McBride, M. , and Krause, M. , 2012, “ Kinematic and Electromyographic Analyses of Normal and Device-Assisted Sit-to-Stand Transfers,” Gait Posture, 36(3), pp. 516–522.
Shum, K. , Crosbie, J. , and Lee, R. , 2005, “ Effect of Low Back Pain on the Kinematics and Joint Coordination of the Lumbar Spine and Hip During Sit-to- Stand and Stand-to-Sit,” Spine, 30(17), pp. 1998–2004. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mederic, P. , Vasqui, V. , Plumet, F. , and Bimaud, P. , 2005, “ Sit to Stand Transfer Assisting by an Intelligent Walking-Aid,” 7th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2004), Madrid, Spain, Sept. 22–24, pp. 1127–1138.
Zhang, F. , Ferrucci, L. , Culham, E. , Metter, J. , Guralink, J. , and Desphande, N. , 2013, “ Performance on Five Times Sit to Stand Task as a Predictor of Subsequent Falls and Disability in Older Persons,” J. Aging Health, 25(3), pp. 478–492. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lisa, L. , Ellen, M. , Roger, D. , and Hillary, S. , 2001, “ Mobility Difficulties Are Not Only a Problem of Old Age,” J. Gen. Intern. Med., 16(4), pp. 235–243. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fraiszudeen, A. , and Yeow, C. H. , 2016, “ Soft Robotic Sit-to-Stand Trainer Seat,” Sixth IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), Singapore, June 26–29, pp. 673–679.
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
View article in PDF format.

References

Baker, S. P. , and Harvey, A. , 1985, “ Fall Injuries in the Elderly,” Clin. Geriatr. Med., 1, pp. 501–512. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ortman, J. M. , Velkoff, V. A. , and Hogan, H. , 2014, “ An Aging Nation: The Older Population in the United State,” U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, accessed Sept. 14, 2017, https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf
Wim, J. , Hans, B. , and Henk, S. , 2002, “ Determinants of the Sit to Stand Movement: A Review,” Phys. Ther., 82(9), pp. 866–879. https://academic.oup.com/ptj/article/82/9/866/2857650 [PubMed]
Engardt, M. , and Olsson, E. , 1992, “ Body Weight-Bearing While Rising and Sitting down in Patients With Stroke,” Scand. J. Rehabil. Med., 24(2), pp. 67–74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=1604264 [PubMed]
Gross, M. , Stevenson, P. , Charette, S. , Pyka, G. , and Marcus, R. , 1998, “ Effect of Muscle Strength and Movement Speed on the Biomechanics of Rising From a Chair in Healthy Elderly and Young Women,” Gait Posture, 8(3), pp. 175–185. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fleischer, C. , and Hommel, G. , 2008, “ A Human–Exoskeleton Interface Utilizing Electromyography,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 24(4), pp. 872–882. [CrossRef]
[Fattah, A. , Agarwal, S. , Catlin, G. , and Hemnett, J. , 2005, “ Design of Passive Gravity-Balanced Assistive Device for Sit to Stand Tasks,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 128(5), pp. 1128–1140.
Matjačić, Z. , Zadravec, M. , and Oblak, J. , 2015, “ Sit-to-Stand Trainer: An Apparatus for Training Normal-like Sit to Stand Movement,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., 24(6), pp. 639–649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
An, Q. , Ishikawa, Y. , Nakagawa, K. , Kuroda, A. , Oka, H. , and Yamakawa, H. , 2012, “ Evaluation of Wearable Gyroscope and Accelerometer Sensor (PocketIMU2) During Walking and Sit-to-Stand Motions,” 21st IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), Paris, Sept. 9–13, pp. 731–736.
Kamnik, R. , and Bajd, T. , 2004, “ Standing Up Robot: An Assistive Rehabilitative Device for Training and Assessment,” J. Med. Eng. Technol., 28(2), pp. 74–80. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Quintero, H. A. , Farris, R. J. , and Goldfarb, M. , 2011, “ Control and Implementation of a Powered Lower Limb Orthosis to Aid Walking in Paraplegic Individuals,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR), Zurich, Switzerland, June 29–July 1, pp. 1–6.
Yamamoto, H. , Kadone, H. , and Suzuki, K. , 2015, “ Wearable Inflatable Robot for Supporting Postural Transitions in Infants Between Sitting and Lying,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), Zhuhai, China, Dec. 6–9, pp. 2289–2294.
Jatsun, S. , Savin, S. , and Yatsun, A. , 2016, “ Motion Control Algorithm for a Lower Limb Exoskeleton Based on Iterative LQR and ZMP Method for Trajectory Generation,” Fifth International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots (MESROB), Graz, Austria, July 4–6, pp. 305–317.
Majidi, C. , 2013, “ A Perspective—Current Trends and Prospects of the Future,” Soft Rob., 1(1), pp. 5–11.
Salah, O. , Asker, A. , Ahmed, M. R. , El-Bab, F. , Samy, M. F. , Ramadan, A. A. , Sessa, S. , and Ahmed, A. , 2013, “ Development of Parallel Manipulator Sit to Stand Assistive Device for Elderly People,” IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and Its Social Impacts (ARSO), Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 7–9, pp. 27–32.
Baiden, D. , and Ivlev, O. , 2013, “ Human-Robot-Interaction Control for Orthoses With Pneumatic Soft-Actuators—Concept and Initial Trail,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, (ICORR), Seattle, WA, June 24–26.
Jeyasurya, J. , Loos, M. , Hodgson, A. , and Croft, E. , 2013, “ Comparison of Seat, Waist and Arm Sit-to- Stand Assistance Modality in Elderly,” J. Rehabil. Res. Develop., 50(6), pp. 835–844. [CrossRef]
Rutherford, D. , Hurley, S. , and Hubley-Kozey, C. , 2014, “ Sit-to-Stand Transfer Mechanics in Healthy Adults: A Comprehensive Investigation of a Portable Lifting Seat Device,” Disability Rehabil.: Assistive Technol., 11(2), pp. 158–165. [CrossRef]
Kamnik, R. , Bajd, T. , Williamson, J. , and Murray-Smith, R. , 2005, “ Rehabilitation Robot Cell for Multimodal Standing Up Motion Augmentation,” IEEE International Conference on Robot and Automation (ROBOT 2005), Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 2277–2282.
Burnfield, Y. , Shu, J. , Buster, T. , Taylor, A. , McBride, M. , and Krause, M. , 2012, “ Kinematic and Electromyographic Analyses of Normal and Device-Assisted Sit-to-Stand Transfers,” Gait Posture, 36(3), pp. 516–522.
Shum, K. , Crosbie, J. , and Lee, R. , 2005, “ Effect of Low Back Pain on the Kinematics and Joint Coordination of the Lumbar Spine and Hip During Sit-to- Stand and Stand-to-Sit,” Spine, 30(17), pp. 1998–2004. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mederic, P. , Vasqui, V. , Plumet, F. , and Bimaud, P. , 2005, “ Sit to Stand Transfer Assisting by an Intelligent Walking-Aid,” 7th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR 2004), Madrid, Spain, Sept. 22–24, pp. 1127–1138.
Zhang, F. , Ferrucci, L. , Culham, E. , Metter, J. , Guralink, J. , and Desphande, N. , 2013, “ Performance on Five Times Sit to Stand Task as a Predictor of Subsequent Falls and Disability in Older Persons,” J. Aging Health, 25(3), pp. 478–492. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lisa, L. , Ellen, M. , Roger, D. , and Hillary, S. , 2001, “ Mobility Difficulties Are Not Only a Problem of Old Age,” J. Gen. Intern. Med., 16(4), pp. 235–243. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fraiszudeen, A. , and Yeow, C. H. , 2016, “ Soft Robotic Sit-to-Stand Trainer Seat,” Sixth IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), Singapore, June 26–29, pp. 673–679.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

((a)–(d)) The soft actuating STS trainer seat: (a) two soft bellow actuators when fully deflated, (b) fully inflated, (c) the complete device when fully deflated, and (d) fully inflated

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrammed of the control system of the soft actuating STS trainer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Operational work flow of the soft actuating STS trainer seat. User sits on the device. Upon activating the inflation button of the device, user is elevated to semistanding position at 45 deg. The user then stands upright on their own effort. To sit down, the user sits on the device fully inflated 45 deg at semistanding position. Upon activating the deflation button, the user is steadily declined to sitting down position at 0 deg.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Peak and mean muscle activation of 4 lower limb muscle group: (a) quadriceps*, (b) gastrocnemius, (c) tibialis anterior*, and (d) hamstrings* (P < 0.05)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Electromyography muscle activation profile of four lower limb muscle group: (a) quadriceps, (b) tibialis anterior, (c) hamstrings, and (d) gastrocnemius (P < 0.05)

Tables

Table Grahic Jump Location
Table 1 Peak and mean muscle activation
Table Footer NoteaSignificant difference (P < 0.05).

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In